Discovering two general characteristic times of transient responses in solid oxide cells


A comprehensive understanding of the transient characteristics in solid oxide cells (SOCs) is crucial for advancing SOC technology in renewable energy storage and conversion. However, general formulas describing the relationship between SOC transients and multiple parameters remain elusive. Through comprehensive numerical analysis, we find that the thermal and gaseous response times of SOCs upon rapid electrical variations are on the order of two characteristic times (τh and τm), respectively. The gaseous response time is approximately 1τm, and the thermal response time aligns with roughly 2τh. These characteristic times represent the overall heat and mass transfer rates within the cell, and their mathematical relationships with various SOC design and operating parameters are revealed. Validation of τh and τm is achieved through comparison with an in-house experiment and existing literature data, achieving the same order of magnitude for a wide range of electrochemical cells, showcasing their potential use for characterizing transient behaviors in a wide range of electrochemical cells. Moreover, two examples are presented to demonstrate how these characteristic times can streamline SOC design and control without the need for complex numerical simulations, thus offering valuable insights and tools for enhancing the efficiency and durability of electrochemical cells.

Nature Communications